The Nobel Prize in Physics 2022 for the French Alain Aspect

picture alliance / dpa/picture alliance via Getty I 03 October 2022, Sweden, Stockholm: A bust of Alfred Nobel is in the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. The week of Nobel Prize announcements begins with the announcement of this year’s winners of the Nobel Prize in Medicine. Photo: Steffen Trumpf/dpa (Photo by Steffen Trumpf/picture alliance via Getty Images)

picture alliance / dpa/picture alliance via Getty I

(Photo taken in Stockholm, Sweden, on October 3, 2022, before the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded. Here is a bust of Alfred Nobel)

SCIENCE – Second episode of the 2022 vintage. On Monday, the Swede Svante Pääbo received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for “his discoveries about extinct hominin genomes and human evolution”. This Tuesday, October 4th, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to the Frenchman Alain Aspect, the American John F. Clauser and the Austrian Anton Zeilinger for their work in quantum mechanics.

The French physicist works at the University of Paris Saclay and at the Polytechnique.

When Einstein didn’t believe it

The trio of septuagenarians continue to be rewarded for their discoveries “quantum entanglement”a mechanism whereby two quantum particles are perfectly correlated regardless of the distance between them, the Nobel jury announced.

The demonstration of this amazing property has paved the way for new technologies in quantum computing and ultra-secure communications, or even ultra-sensitive quantum sensors that would enable extremely precise measurements like those of gravity in the atmosphere.

These enigmatic mechanics were predicted by quantum theory. But even Albert Einstein didn’t believe it: Two initially connected particles – like twins could be – could keep traces of their common past and behave similarly at a distance.

Chemistry, next Nobel Prize

Physics is the second prize in the Nobel class, the winners of which will be announced in the next seven days. The next rewards will be given according to the following schedule:

  • Chemistry, Wednesday, October 5, 11:45 am
  • Literature, Thursday, October 6, 1 p.m
  • Peace, Friday, October 7 at 11 a.m
  • Economy, Monday 10 October at 11:45 am

Ten years laureate in physics

Last year’s prize, awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences, went to two climate modeling experts, the American-Japanese Syukuro Manabe and the German Klaus Hasselmann, and the Italian Giorgio Parisi, a specialist in complex physical systems.

Before Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi in 2021, here are the winners of the last ten physics prizes:

  • 2021: Syukuro Manabe (Japan/USA) and Klaus Hasselmann (Germany) for their work on physical modeling of climate change and Giorgio Parisi (Italy) for his work on the interaction of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems at the atomic to planetary scale.
  • 2020: Roger Penrose (UK), Reinhard Genzel (Germany) and Andrea Ghez (USA) for their discoveries on “Black Holes” and the mysteries of our galaxy.
  • 2019: James Peebles (USA/Canada), Michel Mayor (Switzerland) and Didier Queloz (Switzerland) for their work on the cosmos and the first discovery of an exoplanet.
  • 2018: Arthur Ashkin (USA), Gérard Mourou (France) and Donna Strickland (Canada) for their laser research, which made it possible to develop high-precision tools for industry and medicine.
  • 2017: Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish and Kip Thorne (USA), for the observation of gravitational waves, which confirms a prediction of Albert Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity.
  • 2016: David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz (UK) on topological insulators, materials “exotic” which would make it possible in the more or less near future to build super powerful computers.
  • 2015: Takaaki Kajita (Japan) and Arthur McDonald (Canada) for demonstrating that neutrinos, elementary particles, have mass.
  • 2014: Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano (Japan) and Shuji Nakamura (USA), inventors of the light emitting diode (LED).
  • 2013: François Englert (Belgium) and Peter Higgs (Great Britain) for their work on the Higgs boson, an elementary particle.
  • 2012: Serge Haroche (France) and David Wineland (USA) for their research in the field of quantum optics, which enables the development of super powerful computers and extremely precise clocks.

Like the business prize and other science prizes, the Nobel Prize in Physics suffers from a shortage of female laureates, but few women’s names were among the speculations this year. Since the awards were established in 1901, only four women have won in physics, most recently American astrophysicist Andrea Ghez two years ago.

See also on The HuffPost: The Nobel Prizes told in comics

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